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Among the 218 subjects who were involved in this study, half of them (109) were males while the others were females. The mean child stress level among males was 45.3862, SD 13.8151 whereas the mean child stress level among females was 45.4037, SD 12.2309. The minimum stress level among both male and females was 15.00 whereas the maximum stress level for males was 91.00 and 89.00 among females (Table 1). Figure 1, means plots, also indicates only a slight difference between the means of the two groups (child stress levels in males and females).

While conducting ANOVA, it is important to test whether groups portray almost equal variance using the Levene’s test (Field, 2009). The Levene’s test on homogeneity of variance Levene’s F(1, 216) = 1.682, p = .196 is non significant (.196 > .05), therefore indicating that there is no significant difference between the two variances (Table 2). As such, the assumption of homogeneity of variances has been met.

Table 3 indicates the one-way ANOVA output with an F-value of .000 and a significance value of .992. It is evident that there was no significant difference in child stress levels between males and females F(1, 216) = .000, p = .992. This is because the significance level (.992) is greater than .05. Considering the null hypothesis to be that ‘child stress levels are equal among males and females’, it is evident that the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternate hypothesis, ‘child stress levels are different among males and females, is accepted. Due to the fact that the ANOVA test is able to test hypothesis (by comparing group means) and determine whether to accept or to reject the hypothesis, it can be said that it is also a t-test (Field, 2009).




Field, A. P. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. 6th edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd




Table 1: Descriptive Statistics for Child Stress Levels

N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval for Mean Minimum Maximum
Lower Bound Upper Bound
male 109 45.3862 13.81510 1.32325 42.7633 48.0091 15.00 91.00
female 109 45.4037 12.23090 1.17151 43.0815 47.7258 15.00 89.00
Total 218 45.3950 13.01697 .88162 43.6573 47.1326 15.00 91.00




Table 2: Test of Homogeneity of Variances for Child Stress Levels

Test of Homogeneity of Variances
Levene Statistic df1 df2 Sig.
1.682 1 216 .196



Table 3: ANOVA Test Output for Child Stress Levels among Males and Females

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups .017 1 .017 .000 .992
Within Groups 36768.788 216 170.226
Total 36768.804 217



Figure 1: Means Plot for Male and Female Child Stress Levels


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