How the Management Practices of Planning, Leading, Organizing, Staffing, and Controlling Are Implemented in My Workplace

 
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Introduction

Management is a social process that involves responsibility for economic and effective planning and regulation of the operation of business in the fulfillment of any given purpose. To achieve effective management and leadership, it is important to involve creative problem solving, making sure the employees are motivated, and that the organization is achieving its objectives and goals. To help managers achieve this, there are five functions of management which they must practice. These are leadership, organizing, planning, staffing, coordinating and controlling. When appropriately applied in the workplace, these functions can enable the management to achieve the organizational goals and targets. This paper illustrates how these management functions were applied in my last place of work.

Planning

In my previous workplace, Planning was the systematic process which enabled the managers to make decisions concerning the future activities and the key goals which the organization will attempt to achieve. The managers realized that there was a need for a careful environmental scanning which they determined had an immediate impact on the organizational planning processes. The management employed the use of SWOT analysis and the PESTEL analysis tools to scan the environment (Rue, Byars & Ibrahim, 2012). The SWOT analysis was used to scan for both the external and internal environment of the organization. It enabled the organization to know its weaknesses and strengths, and its opportunities and the threats it will face as it aims to achieve its organizational goals (McNamara, 2011). The PESTEL tool was used by the management to scan for the political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and the technological factors which affect the performance of the organization.

After the environmental scanning, the management used the results to forecast the future events. The major events which the management forecasted included the sales, the technological requirements, the future political landscape and how it might affect the performance of the organization, and the economic landscape. For example, the organization realized if there were inflation or currency deflation, it would not plan to make investments in areas which could be affected.  The organization after forecasting future events usually determined the organizational goals. It is at this stage that the organization considered the strategic goals, tactical goals, and the operational goals of the company. The company would then compare these goals and how they would perform given the conditions of the forecasted future events. After this, the management would develop plans that would enable them to navigate through the forecasted future events so that the organization can achieve its future goals. The organization could then allocate resources to its plans so that it can work towards achieving its goals. Job design enabled the supervisors to check the work overload and underload (Mintzberg, 2004). The management was also capable of knowing the employee input and determining whether a given employee needed training or not. This also enabled the managers to determine the work/rest schedules and any adjustments necessary to ensure the management can align the workforce requirements for specific types of jobs efficiently.

Organizing

Organizing is the managerial function which the management used to bring people and resources together so that it could create products and services in an effective and efficient manner. This function enabled the management to establish task and authority relationships which enabled people within the organization to work together in harmony to achieve the organizational goals (Kreitner, 1986; Whitely, 1978).  Organizing involves three major activities. These include creating specific and flexible job designs, departmentalizing workflow so that they can be adaptable to the new circumstances, and determining the organizational structure.

In my previous place of work, the management used job design determine the tasks which needed to be done, when and how the tasks would be done, how many tasks that each employee had to do,  and the order with which the tasks had to be done. For example, the salespeople were required to open bank accounts for at least 18 people every month, and sell loans amounting to $50,000 every month.

Staffing

Staffing is the managerial function which begins with human resource planning, recruitment, personnel selection, and orientation of new employees.  It involves manning the organization and keeping it manned (Wiggins, 1996). Over the past years, staffing has become an important function of management due to advancements in technology, and the increasingly complex human behaviors. Most organizations conduct staffing functions so that they can put the right people at the right job and to avoid putting square pegs in round holes (Robbins, DeCenzo & Coulter, 2008). This function was specifically important in my place of work because it enables the management to attract talents and retain the superior talents who can move the organization through their skills and knowledge towards achieving its goals.

At my place of work, staffing is attained through graduate recruitment and internal promotions. The organization targets fresh graduates from universities and recruit them before taking them through rigorous training before they are posted at their places of work. Also, the organization conducts internal succession planning processes which ensure that the top talents are identified and promoted so that they can leave the organization to join competitors. This gives the company a competitive advantage since it can ensure that it properly plans and have the right staff for the right jobs at all time.

Coordinating/leading

Leading involves all the organizational activities which ensure that people achieve the highest performance levels. It means influencing the behaviors of individuals in the organization (Sullivan, 2010). Leaders must show that they are capable of coping with complexity and changes in the organization. Leading is similar to directing. It involves motivating employees, ensuring there is effective communication, and encouraging the employees to strive and performance better. It also includes the attempts by the management to satisfy the needs and meet the expectations of employees (Koontz, 2010). It is also similar to coaching and assisting employees.

In my place of work, the manager used various forms of leading to meet the organizational goals. First, the management put in place measures which ensured that effective communication and expression principles were adhered to by all employees. Every employee was encouraged to express their concerns, and whenever conflict arose, there were procedures which all employees were expected to follow. Secondly, the managers initiated a mentoring program which was aimed to make the employees feel better, express themselves freely, and gain more knowledge on the job. Training programs were frequent because the employees were encouraged to take refresher courses at least two time sin twelve months. This ensured that the employees became more skilled and experienced in their places of work. As a result, the employees were more motivated and always put more effort in their jobs. This ensured that every year the company recorded improvements in the overall organizational performance. The manager also organized for regular meetings where she encouraged employees always to be team players.

Controlling

Controlling is an important managerial function which involves ensuring that the organizational performance does not deviate from the set standards.  It consists of three primary steps. These steps include establishing performance standards, comparing the actual organizational performance against the set standards, and taking corrective action whenever deemed necessary (Kemp, Loorbach & Rotmans, 2007). In most organizations, the performances standards are usually set regarding monetary terms involving the amount of revenue generated, costs incurred, or the organizational profits. The standards may also set concerning units produced, the number of defective products, and the level of quality of customer service provided to the clients.

Organizations can perform the measurement of organizational performance using several ways depending on the set performance standards. This may include financial statements, production results, sales report, customer satisfaction or even performance appraisals.  Managers at all levels are supposed to get involved in the managerial function of controlling to some degree.

At my place of work, the managers complete this important managerial function through the use of balanced scorecards. The organization uses a balanced scorecard to plan and manage the business by aligning the business activities to the organizational vision and strategy.  It helps the organization to improve both of its internal and external communications and monitor the performance of employees and departments against the organizational strategic goals. With this in mind, the balanced scorecard enables the managers to view the organization in four dimensions r perspectives and to develop the metrics and data collection tools it uses to analyses each of these perspectives.

The first perspective is the learning and growth perspective. This involves employee training and corporate culture attitudes which related to individual employees and the corporate self-improvements. The organization measures how much the employees have improved on a semi-annual basis, and this makes the organization determine the extent to which it has talents which can move the organization towards achieving its organizational and strategic goals (Stewart & Carpenter-Hubin, 2001). At the beginning of every year, the organization sets standards for employees concerning their training needs and makes sure that after every six months the employees have undergone some form of training in compliance with its set standards and regulations.

The customer perspective allows my organization to measure how the employees focus on the customers and providing them with better products and services (Kaplan & Norton, 2010). The customer satisfaction levels are always measured and compared to the set levels. The organization has set high customer satisfaction levels, and every employee is expected to meet those objectives. High customer satisfaction always means that the organization is heading in the right direction. However, when the customer satisfaction is measured and found to below the expected levels, the employees is always encouraged to put more effort and produce services which exceed customer expectations.

Conclusion

Management functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling are essential for the success of any organization. My current place of work has implemented these functions and has reaped big based on the overall organizational performances. Planning enables the organization to set strategic, tactical and operational strategies. This can be accomplished through environmental scanning to determine the factor sin the internal and external environment which might affect the performance of the organization. Organizing enables the organization to develop an organizational structure which is capable of allocating human resources to ensure the organizational objectives can be achieved. Leading enables the organizational management to influence the employees so that they can put more effort to achieving the organizational goals. Controlling enables the organization to measure its performances against the set standards.


 

References

Kaplan S. R., & Norton, P.D. (2010). Using the Balanced Scorecard as a strategic management system. Retrieved from <https://hbr.org/2007/07/using-the-balanced-scorecard-as-a-strategic-management-system>.

Kemp, R., Loorbach, D., & Rotmans, J. (2007). Transition management as a model for managing processes of co-evolution towards sustainable development. The International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology14(1), 78-91.

Koontz, H. (2010). Essentials of management. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

Kreitner, R. (1986). Principles of management. Boston: Houghton.

McNamara, D. E. (2011). From Fayols Mechanistic To Todays Organic Functions of Management. American Journal of Business Education (AJBE)2(1), 63-78.

Mintzberg, H. (2004). Managers, not MBAs: A hard look at the soft practice of managing and management development. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Robbins, S. P., DeCenzo, D. A., & Coulter, M. K. (2008). Fundamentals of management: Essential concepts and applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Rue, L., Byars, L., & Ibrahim, N. (2012). Management: Skills & Application. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Stewart, A. C., & Carpenter-Hubin, J. (2001). The Balanced Scorecard. Planning for higher education, 37-42.

Sullivan, A.M. (2010). Management and its basic functions. Retrieved from <http://elibrary.vssdcollege.ac.in/web/data/bookscomsc/mcompre/management%20and%20its%20basic%20functions.pdf>.

Whitely, W. T. (1978). Nature of Managerial Work Revisited. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 1978, No. 1, pp. 195-199). Academy of Management.

Wiggins, R. R. (1996). Ten ideas for effective managers. Federal Probation. Mar1996, Vol. 60 Issue 1, p43. 7p. 3 Charts.

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