Criminal Acts

 
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Paper outline:

  1. Annotated bibliography
  2. Criminal acts essay introduction and thesis
  3. Ideas supporting thesis and conclusion


Criminal Acts

Criminal acts are actions that under the United States law cause a threat to injure persons even if the offender is considered unable to commit the crime. Race does not significantly affect the probability of committing criminal acts. Socio-economic factors are majorly responsible for crime prevalence in certain communities. Inadequate Law enforcement can also be the reason for increased criminal acts in a particular area. In this essay evidence is provided to show neutrality of race, and morality of law enforcement is shown to influence the criminal justice system and citizen responsibility to report criminal acts.

Sources used in the research

  1. Sampson J. R. and Lauritsen J. L. (1997). Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Crime and Criminal Justice in the United States. Crime and Justice, 21, Ethnicity, Crime and Immigration: Comparative and Cross-National Perspective (1997), 311-374.

            The article compares whites and blacks participation in violent crimes and suffering as victims of these crimes. It examines official statistics of arrests, victimization estimates and self-reported offending. Then the theories explaining race differences are examined. The article offers in-depth analysis of data from criminal justice process system as well as previous research into the topic.

  1. Bazelon D. L. (1975-2976) The Morality of the criminal law. Southern California Law Review, 49:385

The article looks at the implications of viewing the law as an internalization of control as well as the implications of viewing the law as an externalization of the law. This article also examines the moral arguments that affect how law is viewed. The author is a judge of the appeal court and has a wealth of experience in the matter.

  1. Kaplow, L. and Shavell S. (1994). Optimal Law Enforcement with Self-Reporting of Behaviour. Journal of Political Economy 102(3):583-606. The university of Chicago press. Retrieved from http://www,jstor.org/stable/213864

This article analyses a model for optimal self-reporting, examining its generalizations and demonstrate that optimal law enforcement schemes that include self-reporting are superior to those that exclude self-reporting. The article also observes that advantages of self-reporting can be greater than those found in the model, depending on the law enforcement method.

 

Criminal Acts

            According to the United States law, criminal acts are actions that under the United States law cause a threat to injure persons even if the offender is considered unable to commit the crime. Criminal acts are not influenced by race, such that persons of a particular race are prone to commit crime more than those of another race. Criminal acts are influenced by socio economic factors that put minority groups in improvised conditions promoting delinquency. How the law is enforced will affect the extent of prevalence of criminal acts. In this essay; race is shown to be insignificant, law enforcement is shown to be a moral question and self-reporting policies are seen as a social solution to managing criminal acts.

Research findings of Sampson and Lauritsen (1997) conclude that race there is no significant disparity in crime and criminal justice in the U.S. among blacks and whites that are as a result of race. More blacks than whites are arrested and this is attributed to the crime-conducive neighbourhoods that many blacks live in. Blacks are also less likely to self-report crimes they commit because of their prejudice against law enforcement. Whites offend the law less than blacks’ arguably because they enjoy better economic opportunities and success. If the tables were turned, blacks would be less law offenders than whites. The criminal justice system serves as the main source of research on racial differences. These sources are subject to the question moral concepts that were held at the time of implementation.

The view that order should be achieved at all costs does not consider social justice. It emphasizes stiff penalties regardless of the social factors of the crime. On the other hand factoring in of the realities of social injustices, law enforcement is viewed as a moral obligation, where people believe it because it is justified. Such diverse views have affected how law enforcement is carried out (Bazelon, 1975-1976). The first view of restoring order at all costs by the criminal justice system is to blame for the majority blacks’ prejudice against law enforcers. Therefore we can argue rightfully that the system is to blame for the biasness in crime records that show prevalence to be high among blacks.

Embracing the second view of law enforcement as a moral obligation, results to better management of criminal acts in society. Self-reporting by offenders who understand their moral obligation reduces costs associated with investigations, promotes better relationships among citizens and law enforcers, and reduces incidences of mistaken identities and generalizations (Kaplow & Shavell, 1994). It is important to view all criminal acts neutrally without racial bias. Socio-economic factors that affect blacks and other minority communities should be factored in while formulating policies to encourage self-reporting in the management of criminal acts.

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