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Annotated Bibliography: Junk Food in American Schools

 

Andersen K, Caldwell D, Dunn C, Hoggard L, Thaxton S, Thomas C. Eat Smart: NC’s Recommended Standards For All Foods Available In School. North Carolina DHHS, NC Division of Public Health, Raleigh, NC; 2004.

Despite massive researches on diet and health matters, Anderson and associate authors provided a comprehensive research or rather a critical report featuring different types of foods found in the schools. Indeed, this health article examined the parameters through which “eat smart” can be implemented. The dawn of the twentieth century came with numerous changes in various fields. Food production and consumption behaviors are two major areas that received tremendous impacts from this development. Indeed, it is believed that healthy eating has become a rare practice in the mainstream society due to the rapid increase in junk food productions.

Arguably, the primary objective of the article was to set the federal standards for all types of beverages and foods found in learning institutions. In addition, it aimed at helping American schools impose one of four policy and environmental commendations through the presentation of a wider task force report. The findings and proposals highlighted in the critical report are vital in foreseeing the health impact of eating junk foods. This article is substantial in gathering the necessary information regarding the best eating traits that can decrease junk food intake in American colleges.

 

 

 

 

 

Ashakiran, Deepthi R., and R. Deepthi. “Fast foods and their impact on health.” Journal of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University 1.2 (2012): 7-15.

This particular journal article uses the perspectives of community medicine, biochemistry, and medical notions to discuss the impacts of fast foods on health. Ashakiran and Deepthi did a study using a common phrase “eat healthy and live healthy” as the essential requirement to have a long life. In other words, the lifestyle change has been the primary cause of many diseases since people take very little time to think about what they are eating. As a result, these two authors cited urbanization and globalization to have significant effects on individual eating habits only because many people were forced to adapt the current dining culture. This means that people are enticed to consume sweet and high-calorie fast foods such as junk food. Therefore, the main discussion of the article was based on the related literature regarding possible health hazards on such high-calorie foods, and the alternative methods of avoiding them. Precisely, it is evident that underdeveloped and developing nations with high intake of junk foods have a significant number of people suffering from diseases like diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Accordingly, the writers depicted that junk foods consumption is a global problem that have adverse impact on health needs. Therefore, the commentary emphasizes the importance of health education to stress on the limited consumption and switch to healthier eating habits for an enhanced living.

The authors offer a documentable evidence that health knowledge is vital in highlighting the eating habits, quality of unhealthy foods, nutritional aspects, health impact, and the best preventative measures of giving awareness to the public concerning the effects of junks. Therefore, this source is vital in suggesting the articulate eating practices that can replace junk foods in the American schools. In addition, it offered a systematic emphasis on the adverse effects of fast foods’ and the adaptable measures towards healthy living for the American students.

Buck, Christoph, et al. “Clustering of unhealthy food around German schools and its influence on dietary behavior in school children: a pilot study.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 10.1 (2013): 65.

Christoph Buc et al. study the effects of the clustering of unhealthy food canteens around German school environments as well as on the health of the school going children. The authors employed geocoding in the identification of outlets that provide unhealthy food alternatives to determine whether their clustering around schools contributes to a change in the dietary habits of school going children.  In this social experiment, the authors studied the habits of 394 students aged 6-9. Multilevel regression models were incorporated in the data analysis, and the findings reveal that the food outlets in Germany were not clustered around the school environment and that the local index of these foods had a negligible impact on the BMI’s of the students participating in the pilot study. Since this is a pilot study, it is noteworthy emphasizing that there is still insufficient data to lead to generalized conclusions.

Despite the shortcomings, the study is influential and relevant to the present discussion since

it offers alternative perspectives by providing data on the distribution of food joints around

German school and their potential impact on the dietary patterns of students. The study can

be used to inform policy interventions in the regulation of the manner in which companies

market their food products by employing creative placement techniques that have seen food

eateries cluster around American school environments marketing unhealthy dietary products.

Written in 2013, the article is relatively recent and provides us with a background

investigation into the manner in which business interests approach the issue of school

nutrition.

 

Brunner, Mary Jo. A Comparison of Food Habits of Middle School Students. Diss. University of Wisconsin-Stout, 2006.

Mary Brunner is a scholar from the University of Wisconsin-Stout who did a thesis on the food habits in middle school learners. The research focus was on the adolescents and children in U.S who do not have healthy eating habits. Presumably, the analysis was based on the previous studies that indicated a decrease in milk consumption with a rapid rise in soda pop intake. Similarly, there was a reduction in fruit and vegetable consumption, and a recognizable increase in candy and salty food ingestion. Concisely, it was found out that many children and teens had an increase in junk consumption. Moreover, poor food habits were cited as the major reasons for decreased unwanted body weight while there was an estimated 17% of adolescents and children ages 2 and 19 years with overweight problems. Moreover, this data predicted that childhood overweight indicates adult obesity since food habits developed at child age are likely to persist into adulthood. Therefore, this study offered coherent analytical notions that food habits of sixth graders were evaluated through soda pop, milk intake, and vegetables and various types of junks. Additionally, the study revealed that food-eating habits between boys and girls were similar. However, there was the statistical difference between the number of times that girls and boys ate chips and salty snacks. Evidently, boys ate saltier snacks and chips as compared to girls. Furthermore, it was proven that middle school administration and society must collaborate with nutritionists and public health educators to create awareness regarding the alternative diet choices that can replace fast foods. The above results are vital in proposing the viable solutions of creating determinative strategies in American schools where fast food is a critical health threat.

 

 

Caldwell, D., et al. “Moving Our Children Toward a Healthy Weight: Finding the Will and the Way.” NC Division of Public Health, Raleigh, NC (2002).

The discussion was based on schools and groups from the American states where American Health agencies such as chronic disease control agency, Child Nutrition Services, Center for Disease Control (CDC), and American Heart Association (AHA) provided credible optimal nutrition program for sustainable health. Even though the research was conducted in 2002, the consensus report of handling food and beverage standards in schools provided the concerned stakeholders with the relevant knowledge of rectifying the widespread poor eating habits. Ideally, the modern world is engraved with thousands of different junk foods that are found in shopping malls, streets, school canteen, and other locations. However, health issues are unavoidable because the world has adopted a culture of consuming foods that have various adverse effects on health.

Therefore, this article is essential to the panel of physicians, public health professionals, nutritionists, community leaders, and educators who can help set the best beverage and eating standards of the spoilt junk food eating patterns in the American schools. Among the main health issues highlighted in the report were adult obesity and childhood overweight. Further, this article shows how institutional relationships can be used in offering better eating trends that can promote the increased opportunities for good eating and physical activity.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chriqui, Jamie F., et al. “Association between district and state policies and US public elementary school competitive food and beverage environments.” JAMA Pediatrics 167.8 (2013): 714-722.

The authors, all Ph.Ds., have extensive experience in research methods on account of their activities in their respective fields of study. Chriqui is affiliated with bridging the Gap Program at the University of Illinois while Turner is a member organization participating in the University of Illinois Political Science Department. Finally, Taber is an economics professor at the same institution. The scholars leverage on past research and findings related to the topic of school programs and their efficacy in dealing with childhood obesity. They also take advantage of their past experiences and positions as opinion leaders to shed light policies related to overweightness and obesity in American Schools. According to the researchers, when both the state and district policies were directed at limiting the consumption of sweets in the school environment, there was a 32 percent reduction in district and 43 percent decrease in the availability of sweets in these school settings.

In a study that involved 1814 schools in the elementary system spread across 45 states and employing a diverse range of study designs such as multivariate, cross-sectional, and pooled analysis of data, the authors found that foods rich in regular fat were likely to be less available when state law was implemented at the exclusion of district laws. In this regard, the study illumines on the critical roles played by state and district laws in realizing the adoption of healthier nutritional alternatives in school feeding environments.

The re-energizing of government interventions can be instrumental in this regard since the use of government policy has been shown to result in reduced cases of obesity and the adoption of positive attitudes about diet and nutrition.  Since 32 percent of all children aged between 6 and 11 are overweight, there is a pronounced need for the government, at both district and state level, to consider using direct action and active programs to eliminate the threats posed by the proliferation of junk foods in American institutions of learning.

Dimbleby, Henry, and John Vincent. “The school food plan.” London: The Independent School Food Plan 376 (2013).

Henry Dimbleby and John Vincent took a unique approach in evaluating the commendable eating methods and food plan in different schools. The initial setup of the report was to the notion that schools can have healthy foods that provide happiness and satisfaction at the same time. In other words, it was all about the pleasures of eating, cooking, and growing proper foods that cannot only provide health benefits but also improve student’s academic performance. Additionally, the two authors commenced their article with an intuition that good eating led to a healthy nation and economic growth since the government does not spend more resources on managing health-related problems. Specifically, their study featured the best schools in England where notable improvement were evident in 2005 when Jamie Oliver propagated for a national change in school food programs. Moreover, Oliver denoted the need to have a measurable improvement in the school food plan particularly in  the reduction in junk foods.

Dimbleby and Vincent discussed how the best-performing schools do an intense job of enforcing food education practices such as growing vegetables, cooking, and even animal husbandry. This has been incorporated in the school life and academic curriculum where an intense energy and enthusiasm has been witnessed among school caterers, nutritionists, parents, volunteers, teachers, school cooks, charity workers, and students. Therefore, this publication provides a concise look at the best techniques and practices that can be imposed in the American schools to eliminate excessive junk foods consumption. Moreover, it is clear that all stakeholders must be committed to making our schools great even without junk foods. Indeed, this mutual interest is vital in restructuring the American schools’ food plan since it has already worked in England.

Davis, Brennan, and Christopher Carpenter. “Proximity of fast-food restaurants to schools and adolescent obesity.” American Journal of Public Health 99.3 (2009): 505-510.

Davis and Carpenter are the scholars who conducted the study on “Proximity of fast-food restaurants to schools and adolescent obesity” with the intention to examine the stable relationship between fast food restaurants near schools and overweight among high and middle school students in California. To this end, various authors included an inclusive analytical ideology of the how these cafeterias contribute to excessive consumption of high-calorie foods. On the other hand, the proximity of these foods spread to infinite multivariate regressions across Californian schools. Based on the geocoded data collected between 2002 and 2005 during the California Kids Survey, over 500,000 adolescents were estimated to suffer adolescent obesity due to regular junk food consumption.

The study concluded that students in schools near the cafeterias were addicted to junks despite knowing their health effects. Moreover, the school level characteristics in the research proved that fast-food restaurants should not be established near learning institutions. Therefore, the underlying exposure to low-quality diets such as junks has important effects on teen eating habits and obesity problems. As a result, policy interventions of limiting the location of cafeterias in vital since it cannot only help reduce adolescent obesity but also eliminate other health-related issues. Nonetheless, this study is crucial in developing a coherent framework for reducing the number of junk restaurants established near American schools.

 

Dimbleby, Henry, and John Vincent. “The school food plan.” London: The Independent School Food Plan 376 (2013).

Henry Dimbleby and John Vincent took a unique approach in evaluating the commendable eating methods and food plan in different schools. The initial setup of the report was to the notion that schools can have healthy foods that provide happiness and satisfaction at the same time. In other words, it was all about the pleasures of eating, cooking, and growing proper foods that cannot only provide health benefits but also improve student’s academic performance. Additionally, the two authors commenced their article with an intuition that good eating led to a healthy nation and economic growth since the government does not spend more resources on managing health-related problems. Specifically, their study featured the best schools in England where notable improvement were evident in 2005 when Jamie Oliver propagated for a national change in school food programs. Moreover, Oliver denoted the need to have a measurable improvement in the school food plan particularly in  the reduction in junk foods.

Dimbleby and Vincent discussed how the best-performing schools do an intense job of enforcing food education practices such as growing vegetables, cooking, and even animal husbandry. This has been incorporated in the school life and academic curriculum where an intense energy and enthusiasm has been witnessed among school caterers, nutritionists, parents, volunteers, teachers, school cooks, charity workers, and students. Therefore, this publication provides a concise look at the best techniques and practices that can be imposed in the American schools to eliminate excessive junk foods consumption. Moreover, it is clear that all stakeholders must be committed to making our schools great even without junk foods. Indeed, this mutual interest is vital in restructuring the American schools’ food plan since it has already worked in England.

Davis, Brennan, and Christopher Carpenter. “Proximity of fast-food restaurants to schools and adolescent obesity.” American Journal of Public Health 99.3 (2009): 505-510.

Davis and Carpenter are the scholars who conducted the study on “Proximity of fast-food restaurants to schools and adolescent obesity” with the intention to examine the stable relationship between fast food restaurants near schools and overweight among high and middle school students in California. To this end, various authors included an inclusive analytical ideology of the how these cafeterias contribute to excessive consumption of high-calorie foods. On the other hand, the proximity of these foods spread to infinite multivariate regressions across Californian schools. Based on the geocoded data collected between 2002 and 2005 during the California Kids Survey, over 500,000 adolescents were estimated to suffer adolescent obesity due to regular junk food consumption.

The study concluded that students in schools near the cafeterias were addicted to junks despite knowing their health effects. Moreover, the school level characteristics in the research proved that fast-food restaurants should not be established near learning institutions. Therefore, the underlying exposure to low-quality diets such as junks has important effects on teen eating habits and obesity problems. As a result, policy interventions of limiting the location of cafeterias in vital since it cannot only help reduce adolescent obesity but also eliminate other health-related issues. Nonetheless, this study is crucial in developing a coherent framework for reducing the number of junk restaurants established near American schools.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Freeman, Andrea. “Fast food: Oppression through poor nutrition.” (2007).

Andrea Freeman is a favorite American medical scholar, author, and an experienced professor who have conducted various researches on the health issues such as malnutrition and poor eating patterns. In this 2007 study, Freeman conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the several relationships between fast food and nutritional benefits. Ideally, he considered fast food as the major source of nutrition in low-income and urban neighborhoods across the United States. Specifically, the study depended on the effects of cultural and social factors facing food’s overwhelming targeted market, popularity, government subsidies, infiltration into schools, and the federal food policy. However, the accounts of these factors provided a comprehensive overview of the significant role of denying the inner-city citizens access to healthy foods. In other words, Freeman recalled the overabundance of fast food and inaccessibility to healthier foods has contributed to deprived health status in Latino and African American communities. To this end, the complexities of analyzing the vulnerability of food-related disease and death among the minority groups showed that structural perception has led to food oppression.

Consequently, the research went further and discussed the role of traditional culture in raising a particular level of awareness of the deleterious effects of taking fast foods. Here, the mainstream media is seen as the leading platform of informing the public about the dangers of junk foods to both the young and the adults. However, the author mentioned the efforts of scholars and government support in ensuring fast food industry is limited to dietary choices for both the schools and minorities. To eradicate fast food malnutrition and improve health and life expectancy of these communities, Freeman incorporated the role of activists in changing policy, law, and educational curriculum. In the end, the author took a consistent focus on the mounted attacks on fast foods and food oppression through lobbying, education system, and community-based organization. Indeed, this source offers a meaningful analysis of how various efforts helped control fast food industry and reduce its intake in schools. As such, a sustainable solution to junk food problem in American schools is obtainable.

 

 

Driessen, Christine E., et al. “Effect of changes in the school food environment on eating behaviors and body weight in children: a systematic review.” Obesity Reviews 15.12 (2014): 968-982.

Driessen, et al., conduct an investigation into the effect of changes to the school food environment on the eating habits or the body weight of children in the United States. They manage to study these effects by conducting a systematic review of the data on the subject. In this article, the authors consider the effects produced by isolated food environments on the eating habits and trends of school going children as well as their Body Mass Indexes. This was achieved by conducting searches on electronic databases updated up to 2013. In their systematic review, the authors identified 1002 papers on the subject of school nutrition and report that it is important for school environments to support cultures that engender healthy diets into the school feeding programs.

According to the authors, there is still need for other studies that are comprehensive in and conducted with the same degree of care to develop tested approaches to the elimination of obesity and food cultures that nurture these tendencies to consume unhealthy foods. Systematic reviews of this kind are rare and provide fresh insights into the topic because they are comprehensive and take into account divergent literature to arrive at conclusions. In light of this fact, this systematic review is instructive to future studies in the area since it identifies, summarizes, and accounts for the present cases of childhood obesity by introducing a detailed analysis of research in the field to provide the most current understanding of the state of affairs.

Dority, Bree L., Mary G. McGarvey, and Patricia F. Kennedy. “Marketing foods and beverages in schools: the effect of school food policy on students’ overweight measures.” Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 29.2 (2010): 204-218.

While research into school-targeted marketing campaigns has been around for years now, there is still a considerable gap in knowledge to be filled with most of the research on the subject is disputed. The presence of interest groups capable of influencing public opinions and shifting the manner in which parents, teachers, the school management, and students perceive fast foods within the school environment has resulted in the production of different data and findings.

In a bid to redress this lacuna in research, Dority, McGarvey, and Kennedy conducted a study to test the impact of marketing campaigns on measures designed to achieve a reduction in school obesity. Their findings reveal different outcomes in different schools as school boards react to the 2007 directive by the United States government aimed at reducing obesity among school going Americans. The authors discovered that by imposing a ban on the unrestricted sale of junk foods around school environments, obesity levels reduced by 18% for the period under investigation.

In light of these findings, the article provides evidence for the proposition that placing a la carte bans on junk foods can serve as an effective health intervention. Further, by combining a mixture of measures that oversee school food marketing campaigns, schools can achieve significant strides in the reduction of cases of obesity among school children. This research can be critical to the development of the state, district, and federal school feeding programs that can attenuate some of the worst effects of obesity of American children; thereby improving their quality of life.  This article is a recommendable read to the scientific and general audiences because it manages to encapsulate the essential remedial measures that can have been proven to contribute to the development, nurturing, and institutionalization of healthy eating habits in school environments.

Fox, Mary Kay. “Improving food environments in schools: tracking progress.” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 110.7 (2010): 1010-1013.

According to Fox, schools must prioritize and emphasize the incorporation of healthy alternatives to the school diet. Without this, schools run the risk of permitting the consumption of foods that may end up harming children enrolled in the American education system. As Fox notes, the costs associated with containing obesity are spiraling, and schools must now take the initiative to direct the absorption of healthy food alternatives in school feeding programs or risk exposing millions of American children to danger and harm. Fox hypothesizes that because of their unique standing in the community (and also because schools interact with children on a daily basis), these institutions are better placed to effect behavioral changes among children about their eating habits.

In so doing, Fox argues that the American community would have succeeded in making the first definitive step towards eradicating obesity and preventing the multiplication of cases of overweight school-going children. This article is relevant to the construction of the dialogue on the need for an effective and holistic approach to the growing threat of junk foods in American schools. Fox lights up the debate by calling on all stakeholders in the education system to be proactive in the elimination of obesity as opposed to repeating the same interventionist programs without much change in the results. Fox holds a Master’s in Education and is a seasoned author of materials on the subject of health, nutrition, and their impact on educational outcomes. Writing as an insider in the education sector, the views expounded upon by Fox in this article serve as the catalyst for the initiating a paradigm shift in the way we conceptualize school nutrition.

Kubik, Martha Y., et al. “State but not district nutrition policies are associated with less junk food in vending machines and school stores in US public schools.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 110.7 (2010): 1043-1048.

Writing for the Journal of the American Diabetic Association, Kubik, et al. delve into the role of state and district nutritional policies towards the promotion of healthy diets in school environments. To the authors, those policies pursued by District Councils towards the reduction of the consumption of junk foods by American school-going children have proven largely successful to the exclusion of state policies. By using a cross-sectional study and self-reported data, the authors sought to study the efficacy of state and district policies targeting school canteens and food vending machines in school environments resulted in healthier food alternatives for school-children. The authors use the School Health Policies and Programs initiative founded in 2006 to collate their data. In this sense, the article will form the foundation with which to understand and contextualize the diverse programs aimed at reducing the consumption of junk foods in around the school environment.

Through simple and brave language, the researchers can condense thousands of pages of date into the simple and understandable language. The article’s value also lies in the contingent nature of its design. By comparing the efficacy of state and district health policies, the report sheds light on the manner in which taxpayers’ dollars are used in the mitigation of the effects of obesity among American school-going children. As obesity takes its toll on the student pollution, we are reminded of the efforts being taken to address the crisis.

Mâsse, Louise C., Daniel Naiman, and Patti-Jean Naylor. “From policy to practice: implementation of physical activity and food policies in schools.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 10.1 (2013): 71.

While many of the articles analyzed to provide insights into the relationship between unhealthy diets and childhood obesity, Mâsse, Naiman, and Naylor (2013) investigate the transformation of policies designed to achieve healthy eating habits in schools are fully and successfully implemented. The authors move from the premise that since most of the policies have so far failed to institutionalize healthy eating habits and reduce childhood obesity and related cases of overweightness, there is a need for new methods to accomplish the same.

According to the authors, stakeholders in the education sector must recognize the importance of incorporating physical exercise into the raft of activities that students participate. This is because research has established positive associations between physical activity and the mitigation of obesity. By using the Innovations Model, the authors suggest that policy interventions should become more proactive instead of the present passive approach.

The mitigation of the worst effects of childhood obesity requires the seamless transformation of policy into practice. Using a wide array of examples from other fields, the authors can make a convincing case for the use of proactive measures. The authors argue against passive strategies since they have so far proven inadequate in negotiating the delicate balance between healthy diets and the competing interests in the food industry committed to the marketing and sale of junk foods to American school children. The authors are published in the prestigious International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity and collectively, have extensive knowledge in their areas of study.

Nanney, Marilyn S., Cynthia S. Davey, and Martha Y. Kubik. “Rural disparities in the distribution of policies that support healthy eating in US secondary schools.” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 113.8 (2013): 1062-1068.

The article introduces a different perspective to healthy eating in American schools by investigating the existing disparities in the rural areas of the United States as a result of the policies adopted. The authors use the School Health Profiles published in 2009 to study the manner in which these healthy alternatives are distributed among 6732 students in 28 states.  The study investigated the manner in which the distribution of policies relating to the consumption of specific foods such as snacks or the inclusion of vegetables or the size of the food packages affected the efficacy of these interventionist programs.

According to Nanney, Davey, and Kubik, schools located in rural areas reported the implementation of fewer policies with regard to the introduction of healthier food alternatives to their students. Further, these schools were also likely not to implement bans on food marketing campaign around school environments as well as introduce limits on food size packages.

The study reveals that there exist sharp differences/disparities in the manner in which schools in urban areas and those in rural/small towns implement healthier food alternatives. Then data gathered from this study will be instrumental in reinforcing the call for the introduction of equitable and practical school feeding programs and policies. By viewing the issue from a socio-cultural and economic perspective, the data and findings reported in the article will direct the augmentation of efforts in rural areas to balance the manner in which school-feeding approaches designed to reduce obesity are conceptualized and implemented.

Taber, Daniel R., et al. “State policies targeting junk food in schools: racial/ethnic differences in the effect of policy change on soda consumption.” American Journal of Public Health 101.9 (2011): 1769-1775.

Taber, et al., investigate the impact of state policies relating to junk foods along racial or ethnic lines, with particular reference to policies on the consumption of soda among school children. The authors use changes in Body Mass Index to estimate the impact of these policies among children by studying the differences in an ethnic context. By employing data on the policies and measures taken to reduce the consumption of soda (such as policies designed to lessen the consumption of snacks and other confectionaries from popular eating spots within the school environment), the study illumines on the political, social, and economic dimensions of policy interventions.

Taber et al. conclude that state policies can be used to effect behavioral change in the consumption of beverages. However, the authors also note that the changes are not significant enough to result in noticeable BMI changes. The authors employ a hybrid design that takes into account mixed linear models to analyze their data. Written for a scientific audience, the article provides insights into the social costs associated with interventionist programs, especially in health related aspects of school management.

Veteran researchers of repute in the scientific world use their influence the article. The authors rely on data collected from over 90 000 students in 33 states, including the District of Columbia.  The study of the associations between state policy and their impact on racial identities adds to the growing literature on intersectionality. For this reason, the article introduces a new way of understanding the factors contributing to the consumption of unhealthy foods by children in the United States.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Van Hook, Jennifer, and Claire E. Altman. “Competitive food sales in schools and childhood obesity: a longitudinal study.” Sociology of Education 85.1 (2012): 23-39.

Van Hook and Altman investigate the connection between competitive food sale and childhood obesity among school going children. The authors sought to establish the underlying connections between competitively priced foods such as sweetened drinks and candy bars and childhood obesity. To accomplish this, the authors used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Data on Kindergarten children. By using a combination of models such as the fixed effects and natural experimentation, the authors discovered that weight gain among middle school children was not connected to the introduction of competitive foods such as candy bars in their diets.

The authors conclude that because of the unique characteristics of the middle school, it may be possible that the effects of weight gain were dampened by the strict regimentation applied to the distribution of activities for students. In light of the above, the article provides an alternative approach to the discourse by focusing on the impact of competitive foods on childhood obesity. By studying the layered nature of this relationship, the authors provide alternative narratives that can be used to inform the debate on school nutrition in the age of mass advertising.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gao, Yongqing, et al. “Evaluation of fast food behavior in pre-school children and parents following a one-year intervention with nutrition education.” International journal of environmental research and public health 11.7 (2014): 6780-6790.

Gao et al. provided a comprehensive evaluation of various shortcomings of overconsuming fast food. To provide a brief analysis, They used food science concepts and case studies that indicate the risks of junk foods to children. Ideally, the community-based study was conducted with the intention of assessing the purpose of nutritional education intervention on the American lifestyle on junks. Moreover, the research integrated numerous scenarios through which Chinese children and their parents have embraced fast food consumption culture. In creating an experimental analysis of this argument, the researchers used eight kindergarten schools from three unique locations of Hefei City, where 1252 children and their parents were randomly selected. Analytical and descriptive statistical methods were used to determine the midterm, baseline, and final western style knowledge about fast foods.

The realm of this investigation was based on the participant’s familiarity with fast foods. In the end, the study compared and contrasted the parents’ understanding of fast food effects and the main reasons why this lifestyle must stop. In this study, the scholars revealed that many parents had adopted the western style of giving their children fast food at breakfast. However, the case is different in Chinese children where fast food is not viewed as “food,” but rather an “interesting gift.” Therefore, this study is paramount in preparing a consistent study of fast food insights from American parents and children who have been addicted to the junk food culture. Moreover, it helps in understanding the role of nutrition education to both parents and students who consume fast foods uninformed of their health hazards.

Morris, Jennifer, Marilyn Briggs, and Sheri Zidenberg-Cherr. “School-based gardens can teach kids healthier eating habits.” California Agriculture 54.5 (2010): 40-46.

The approach to learning the essence of better eating habits is complex because of the presence of different types foods and consumption patterns. However, Morris and fellow authors developed a common argument of replacing fast foods with vegetables. In their research that was published in California Agriculture journal, a discussion on teaching kids healthier eating habits was prioritized. Undoubtedly, the study concentrated on the importance of vegetables and fruits in a child’s nutrition. Some of their benefits include the provision of fiber, minerals, several phytochemicals, and vitamins that are vital to the growth and development of a healthy body. Nonetheless, the authors emphasized that vegetables and fruits maintain a robust health and protection from illnesses. In a recent case study, it was found that only 7% of children aged 2 to 7 take the recommended servings of two fruits and three diets of vegetables in a day.

The conclusion of the study was that many parents have limited knowledge concerning the significance of these nutritious natural foods to the body. Additionally, it was suggested that only one percent of the American kids met the U.S. Food Guide Pyramid recommendations of consuming natural foods. This fact illustrated the extent to which many children are exposed to poor eating habits such as consuming fast foods. In the end, the study revealed that school-based gardens should be used to educate kids on better foods and dietary choices. As such, this scholarly article becomes useful because it provides a possible remedy to the excessive junk food consumption in the American schools. Ideally, using school-based gardens and nutrition classes can make fruits and vegetables be the best replacement of fast foods. Notably, the social cognitive theory was used to show the correlation between consumption patterns and the individual behaviors.

 

 

Stone, M., et al. “Rethinking School Lunch: A Planning Framework from the Center for Ecoliteracy.” Center for Ecoliteracy. Retrieved from http://www. eco-literacy. org/sites/default/files/uploads/rethinking_school_lunch_guide. Pdf (2010).

The Center for Ecoliteracy is an organization dedicated to providing a cohesive framework of restructuring the school food systems. In a report spearheaded by Stone et al., comparative effects of fast foods in American schools was used to evaluate the possible significance of “rethinking school lunch.” Notably, the authors published the report with the purpose of improving school food through teaching and supporting sustainable food systems that can help create an educational program focused on comprehending different relationships between environment, culture, food, and health. Ideally, the reports included numerous statistical facts to ascertain the cost, amount, and types of fast foods in schools. For instance, it establishes that the U.S National School Lunch Program serves about 5.5 billion lunches annually. This can be reduced to about 4000-school meals that a child takes before completing the kindergarten studies. In other words, this article exemplifies that diet-related illness is the current American crisis has insisted by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The authors pointed that obesity, poor diet, and physical inactivity are the main factors responsible for premature deaths, increase in chronic diseases including diabetes, osteoporosis, stroke, hypertension, heart disease, and many other forms of cancer.

In other words, the report proved that junk food is an economic, community, and environmental issue that requires a sensible approach from all disciplines. This confirms that junk foods in an American school are subject to change since the U.S. national government, federal authorities, charity firms, and community-based organizations are committed to providing ultimate healthy goods for all schools. As such, it is vital for all stakeholders to join forces and ensure that everybody in the society has access to healthy foodstuffs.

 

Lee, Helen. “The role of local food availability in explaining obesity risk among young school-aged children.” Social science & medicine 74.8 (2012): 1193-1203.

Increased attention towards the understanding of those modifiable elements of the local food culture and environment has provided researchers with the motivation to further their research into this costly expense on public health care through the management and treatment of obesity and weight-related ailments. As part of this collective enterprise, Lee studies role played by local food availability in increasing the risk of obesity among school children. The researcher explores the issue from the perspective that the in-availability of healthy alternatives to these fast food outlets as well as the lack of access to foods such as fruits and other groceries contributes to the obesity pandemic in the United States. The researcher uses the National Establishment Time Series to identify children from various economic, racial, and other socio-economic indicators and how they may be affected by the exposure to a cluster of fast food outlets.

Using a framework known as multi-modeling, the researcher found that those school-aged children that live in poor or marginalized neighborhoods were extremely susceptible to weight gain and the effects of obesity due to their proximal contact with fast food outlets, which tend to be cheaper than grocery stores. At the same time, the research reveals that it does not necessarily follow that children residing in poor neighborhoods have no access to healthy alternatives. This research is critical for two reasons: it provides us with a new perspective on the role played by location or availability of fast food outlets in creating an environment that promotes the consumption of junk in proportions that are a detriment to the health of school-aged children. This article is relevant to the present undertaking because it examines the debate from a socio-economic perspective.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Poti, Jennifer M., Meghan M. Slining, and Barry M. Popkin. “Solid fat and added sugar intake among US children: The role of stores, schools, and fast food, 1994–2010.” American journal of preventive medicine 45.5 (2013): 551-559.

Potti, Slining, and Popkin delve into the intake of solid fats and added sugars among US schools and research the impact or role played by fast food stores and the school environment in contributing to the problem of obesity and related complications among American children. Their prompt for undertaking research in this area was to add to the scant literature on the role of location in promoting the eating habits of school-going children. Their research reveals that the SoFAS content of foods consumed in five regions selected for the survey was above the average daily intakes recommended by the center for disease control and prevention (CDC). The SoFAS content in key food intakes supplied within these locations and targeting school-going children was taken and then analyzed using regression models.

The researchers, affiliated with the University of North Carolina’s Department of Nutrition, found out that in most of the participating food kiosks had kept the SoFAS contents of essential foods above the statutory or recommended levels. In this regard, schools and stores fared much better in trying to limit the content of solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). For those schools that provided students with French fries or other forms of fast foods, their SoFAS contents in essential foods were significantly higher as compared to stores. The study reveals, among other things, that the decision by most schools to move towards the provision of flavored milk. This study is important in the sense that it succinctly captures the role played by location in contributing to adverse or positive impacts on the health outcomes of school-going children through food quality. The study creates links to future research into the dynamics and nuances of the relationship between and among of location of schools and food stores and their attendant effects on children’s health.

 

 Tobin, K. J. “Fastfood consumption and educational test scores in the USA.” Child: care, health and development 39.1 (2013): 118-124.

Tobin introduces a fresh perspective to this study through the examination of the relationship between educations test scores among school-going children in America and the rates of fast food consumption. In his study, Tobin found out that schools in America are beginning to adjust their policies to reflect attitudes that promote the positive associations between educational achievement and performance. This research seeks to establish these connections by analyzing data from the Food Consumption Questionnaire ( 118). The survey tried to determine the link between students reported consumption of junk foods and their performance in test scores after a period of observation. While the study is not conclusive on the findings, it finds negative associations between poor nutrition and academic performance in tests. The author concludes that schools should consider adopting policies that promote healthy eating habits among students in a bid to improve the development of the mental propensities.

Kerry Tobin is associated with the Education Department of Marywood University and has conducted extensive research on the subject of educational scores. He uses least square aggression methods to compile, analyze, and reach conclusions. One of these findings is that governments, parents, and school administrations should own the process of providing students with sufficient nutrient to protect them against the risk of lifestyle disabilities such as obesity caused by the consumption of unhealthy meals at school or within the school environment.  The article is well researched and interacts with current trends in the field of social studies.  The study is important because it shows a correlation between fast food consumption and impaired cognitive functions, which is an interesting outcome that would inform my proposed study. As noted in Tobin’s research, increased consumption of carbonated beverages and fatty foods, which are risk factors for obesity and overweightness, lead to decreased performance among the students involved in the research. Given the implications of these study outcomes, Tobin’s research becomes important to future researches and raises concerns that must be analyzed further.

 

 

 

 

 

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